WWII ARMY COMMANDS


TABLE OF CONTENTS
WWII Army Commands
Supporting Commands
Minor Commands and Services



WWII ARMY COMMANDS

Source:  "The Army Almanac", U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950



GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, U. S. ARMY (GHQ)

Primary mission:  Primary mission of GHQ, United States Army was to "facilitate and speed up the process of mobilization by taking over the direct supervision of the...task of organizing and training the field forces within the continental United States." On 3 July 1941, mission was expanded to include the planning and command of military operations.

Commander:  Gen. George O. Marshall, 26 July 1940-9 March 1942.

Chronology of events:  General Headquarters, United States Army, was activated on 26 July 1940, per OCS 21152-2 OCS-OW to TAG, GHQ, 25 July 1940. On 9 March 1942, General Headquarters. United States Army was superseded by the Army Ground Forces, which inherited its training function's planning and operational responsibilities were transferred to other agencies of the War Department (per Executive order of the President, 2 February 1942).

Remarks:  Although the commanding general of GHQ was the Army Chief of Staff, Gen. George C. Marshall, the actual work of directing GHQ fell to the Deputy Chief of Staff, Maj. Gen. (later Lt. Gen.) Lesley J. McNair.



ARMY AIR FORCES SUPPORTING COMMANDS IN WORLD WAR II

Source:

The Army Almanac
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950



AIR TRAINING COMMAND

Headquarters:  Fort Worth, Tex.

Remarks:  This command originally consisted of two subcommands-the Technical Training Command, organized 26 March 1941, and the Flying Training Command, activated 23 January 1942. They were combined into a unified Training Command with headquarters at Fort Worth, Tex., on 7 July 1943, with a coordinated curriculum providing training for both aircrewmen and ground technicians. It was also responsible for the Officer Candidate School for air officers and for basic training for draftees.



TROOP CARRIER COMMAND

Headquarters:  Indianapolis, Ind.

Remarks:  The Troop Carrier Command was dissociated from Air Transport Command, its parent organization, on 20 June 1942. It coordinated the organization and training of troop carrier, glider, medical air evacuation, and other airborne units. Also it was responsible for developing joint airborne combat tactics in conjunction with Army Ground Forces.



AIR MATERIEL COMMAND

Headquarters:  Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio.

Remarks:  The Air Corps Materiel Command which was established in 1926 was redesignated Air Materiel Command on 9 March 1942, and served as the aeronautical Research and Development Center for the AAF. It was responsible for procurement, and contracting for purchase of all aircraft and related equipment used by the War Department.



PROVING GROUND COMMAND

Headquarters:  Eglin Field, Fla.

Remarks:  Originally organized as the Air Corps Proving Ground, 15 May 1941, with headquarters at Eglin Field, Fla., it was redesignated Proving Ground Command, 1 April 1942. It conducted operational tests and studies of aircraft and airborne equipment.



PERSONNEL DISTRIBUTION COMMAND

Headquarters:  Atlantic City, N. J.

Remarks:  Individual redistribution centers, with headquarters at Atlantic City, N. J., were organized 15 August 1943 to provide rest and recreation for combat returnees, and to reassign returned personnel. The centers were consolidated 1 June 1944 in accordance with new rotation policy, with three major subdivisions; (1) Redistribution Stations, (2) Convalescent Hospitals, and (3) Overseas Replacement Depots.

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MINOR COMMANDS AND SERVICES

Source:

The Army Almanac
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950



AIR WEATHER SERVICE

Headquarters:  Asheville, N. C.

Remarks:  This service provided scientific information about weather to AAF and other interested agencies.



SCHOOL OF AVIATION MEDICINE

Headquarters:  Randolph Field, Tex.

Remarks:  It trained air surgeons and conducted research and development in the science of aviation medicine.



AERONAUTICAL CHART SERVICE

Headquarters:  Washington, D. C.

Remarks:  The map reproduction plant was in St. Louis. It developed the Tri-metrogen System of aerial photography which revolutionized aerial reconnaissance. They replaced the time-worn Mercator system of maps with conic projections more suitable to air operations.



FIRST MOTION PICTURE UNIT

Headquarters:  Culver City, Calif.

Remarks:  Produced motion pictures as training aids for AAF personnel, making it possible to teach large groups of men the intricate lessons far more rapidly than by formalized courses.

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